EU’s Civilian Power Preference in the International System

Authors

  • Ferat KAYA Dr., Dicle University, Political Science and Public Administration

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46291/IJOSPERvol8iss2pp255-272

Keywords:

European Union, Civilian Power, Foreign Policy

Abstract

The EU, which aims at economic integration in Europe with a neo-functionalist approach and then moves towards political unity, did not focus on the foreign policy dimension. Duchene, who made a conceptual classification of the EU's effectiveness in the international arena in the 1970s, defined the EU as "civilian power". The EU, combined the common foreign and security policies in the Maastricht Treaty’s second column, aimed to be univocal and more effective in the international system. The EU, preferring positive conditionally with diplomatic and economic assistance, aimed to be an effective actor in the international system. Although the EU has recently mentioned its name with military missions, it has preferred positive sanctions with economic aid, incentives and privileged trade agreements.  This study concludes that the EU, which reinforces and actively uses civilian power instead of military preferences, is a civilian power.

References

Dahl, R.A. (1957). The concept of power. Behavioral Science, 2(3), 201.215.

Duchene, F. (1973). The European Community and the Uncertainties of Interdependence in Kohnstam. London: Macmillan.

European Union External Action. (2020, 05 March). Military and Civilian Missions and Operations, Retrieved from: https://eeas.europa.eu/topics/military-and-civilian-missions-and-operations/430/military-and-civilian-missions-and-operations_en.

European Commission. (2002, 4 June). Mid-term review of the Prodi Commission closing the gap between rhetoric and reality. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/ detail/en/MEMO_02_124.

European Commission, (2021). Recipients and Results of EU aid. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/info/aid-development-cooperation-fundamental-rights/recipients-and-results-eu-aid_en

European Commission, (2021, 07 May). European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations; Turkey, Facts & Figures. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/echo/where/europe/turkey_en.

European Community Information Service, (2006). Partnership in Africa: The Yaounde Association. London: Edwin Snell & Sons, Primers.

European Council, (2021). Cotonou Agreement, 24.05.2021. Retrieved from: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/policies/cotonou-agreement/

Hales, C. Managing Through Organization. London: Routledge.

Hill, C. (1990). European Foreign Policy: Power Bloc, Civilian Model- or Flop? in Rummel, R. (Ed.) The Evolution of an International Actor: Western Europe’s new Assertiveness. Boulder: Westview.

Hill, C. (1993). The Capability-Expectations Gap, or Conceptualizing Europe’s International Role. Journal Common Market Studies, 31, 305-328.

Hill, C. (2002). The Geo-political implications of enlargement, in Zielonka, J. (Ed.). Europe Unbound. London: Routledge.

Holden, P. (2009). In Search of Structural Power EU Aid Policy as a Global Political Instrument (1st Edition). London: Routledge.

Holsti, K. J. (1964). The Concept of Power in the Study of International Relations, Background. Volume 7, Issue 4, February 1964, 179–194.

Holsti, K. J. (1995). International Politics-A Framework for Analysis (7th Edition). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Klaiber K. (2007). Guest Editorial: The European Union in Afghanistan: Lesson Learned. European Foreign Affairs Review, 12/7, 7-11.

Kurtbağ, Ö. (2003). Avrupa Akdeniz Ortaklığı: Barselona Süreci [European Mediterranean Partnership: The Barcelona Process]. Ankara Avrupa Çalışmaları Dergisi, Cilt:3, No:1, 73-92.

Mackinder, H. J. (1944). Democratic Ideals and Reality: A Study in the Politics of Reconstruction. Middlesex: Penguin Books.

Mahan, A. T. (1890). The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783. London: Sampson Low, Marston and Co.

Maull, H. (1990). Germany and Japan; The New Civilian Powers Foreign Affairs, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/46262/hanns-w-maull/germany-and-japan-the-new-civilian-powers

Maull, H.W. (2005). Europe and the New balance of Global order, International Affairs, 81:4, 775-799.

Moravcsik A. (2002). Europe, The Quiet Superpower, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., French Politics. Retrieved from: http://www.princeton.edu/~amoravcs/library /french_politics.pdf

Morgenthau, H. (1956). Politics Among Nations. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Nye, J. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York: Public Affairs.

Pop, A. (2007). NATO ve Avrupa Birliği: İşbirliği ve Güvenlik [NATO and the European Union: Cooperation and Security]. Retrieved from: http://www.nato.int/docu/review/2007/issue2/turkish/art6.html

Stavridis, S. (2001). Militarising” the EU: The Concept of civilian Power Europe revisited. The International Spectator, Volume XXXVI, No.4 October-December. 43-50.

Waltz, K. (2010). Theory of International Politics. Long Grove: Waveland Press.

Wendt, A. (1999). The Social Theory of Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Whitman, R.G. (2002). The fall and rise of civilian power Europe. National Europe Centre Paper 16, 1-28.

Published

2021-08-14

How to Cite

KAYA, F. (2021). EU’s Civilian Power Preference in the International System. International Journal of Social, Political and Economic Research, 8(2), 255-272. https://doi.org/10.46291/IJOSPERvol8iss2pp255-272

Issue

Section

Articles